The kindred adjective occurs Galatians , "false brethren privily brought in" pareisaktous. The metaphor is of spies or traitors introducing themselves into an enemy's camp. Compare Jude , crept in unawares. The word occurs four times in New Testament. In two of these instances pro has clearly the temporal sense before Ro note ; Ephesians note. In Galatians , it is taken by some in the sense of openly, publicly see note there.
It seems better, on the whole, to take it here in the temporal sense, and to render written of beforehand, i. So the American Rev. He enumerates six forms of sensuality, three personal and three social:.
It includes lasciviousness, and may well mean that here; but is often used without this notion. In classical Greek it is defined as violence, with spiteful treatment and audacity. As in this passage its exact meaning is not implied by its being classed with other kindred terms, it would seem better to take it in as wide a sense as possible—that of lawless insolence and wanton caprice, and to render, with Trench, wantonness, since that word, as he remarks, "stands in remarkable ethical connection with aselgeia, and has the same duplicity of meaning" "Synonyms of the New Testament".
At Ro , where lasciviousness seems to be the probable meaning, from its association with chambering oitais , it is rendered wantonness in A. Excesses of all kinds, with possibly an emphasis on sins of uncleanness. The word is also used of desire for good and lawful things Luke ; Philippians note. Pointing especially to fleshly lusts, "the inner principles of licentiousness" Cook. The kindred verb occurs in the Septuagint, Deuteronomy ; Isaiah From oinos, wine, and phleo or phuo, to teem with abundance; thence to boil over or bubble up, overflow.
It is the excessive, insatiate desire for drink, from which comes the use of the word for the indulgence of the desire—debauch. The remaining three are revellings, banquetings, and idolatries. Turn change metatithemi [word study] literally means to put in another place. In the figurative sense metatithemi means to effect a change in state or condition and so to alter something as when the priesthood is changed Heb Grace charis [word study] is God's unmerited favor and supernatural enablement and empowerment for salvation and for daily sanctification.
On Lord, see on 2 Peter note. In three of these instances the word is used in direct address to God; and it may be asked why the Rev. In five out of the ten occurrences of the word in the New Testament it means master of the household. Originally, it indicates absolute, unrestricted authority, so that the Greeks refused the title to any but the gods.
In the New Testament despotes and kurios are used interchangeably of God, and of masters of servants. Lord master, owner kurios [word study] describes the supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. Kurios is used of the one God to Whom a person or thing belongs, about which He has the power of deciding. The participle is to be rendered as present, and the once is not formerly, but once for all, as Jude Destroyed apollumi [word study] conveys the basic meaning of describing that which is ruined and is no longer usable for its intended purpose.
Believe pisteuo [word study] means to have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of something or someone. To accept the word or evidence of. Keep tereo [word study] means to keep an eye on, keep something in view, to attend carefully, or to watch over it. It means to watch as one would some precious thing.
The idea is to observe attentively and to retain in custody. From this comes a secondary meaning of sovereignty, dominion, magistracy, as being the beginning or first place of power. So mostly by Paul, as principalities Romans ; rule 1Co Compare Lk , magistrates; Rev.
A peculiar use of the word occurs at Acts , "the sheet knit at the four corners archais ;" the corners being the beginnings of the sheet. In this passage the A. The Jews regarded the angels as having dominion over earthly creatures; and the angels are often spoken of in the New Testament as archai, principalities; as Romans ; Ephesians ; so that this term would be appropriate to designate their dignity, which they forsook.
Left abandoned apoleipo [word study]. For a longer form aeidios , from aei, always. Under darkness hupo zophon zophos [word study] Under carries the sense of the darkness brooding over the fallen spirits. On darkness , see on 2 Peter note Peculiar to Peter and Jude. Originally of the gloom of the nether world.
Compare Hesiod:. Even as just as homoios [word study]. The force of ek is out and out; giving themselves up utterly. See on followed, 2 Peter note. Giving pareisphero [word study] means literally to bear in alongside or besides to bring to bear , and so to introduce simultaneously.
This verb implies making a strong effort to provide something. Pareisphero was at times used of smuggling or of importing along byways. The phrase occurs Mark ; James and John leaving their father and going after Jesus. Here metaphorical. Used of meats on the table ready for the guests; of a corpse laid out for burial; of a question under discussion. Thus the corruption and punishment of the cities of the plain are laid out in plain sight.
From deiknumi, to display or exhibit; something, therefore, which is held up to view as a warning. Some of the best modern expositors render are set forth as an example of eternal fire, suffering punishment. This meaning seems, on the whole, more natural, though the Greek construction favors the others, since eternal fire is the standing term for the finally condemned in the last judgment, and could hardly be correctly said of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Those cities are most truly an example of eternal fire. Suffering hupechomsai. The participle is present, indicating that they are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot's time.
The verb means, literally, to hold under; thence to uphold or support, and so to suffer or undergo. Defile miaino [word study] means literally to dye with another color. Figuratively miaino it describes a mind and conscience that is morally contaminated, corrupted, tainted, tinged and polluted.
In a ceremonial or cultic sense it means to defile or make unclean and so unacceptable. Jude uses miaino in a physical and a moral sense of the one's flesh defiled by licentiousness and so to corrupt morally. Reject set aside, nullify atheteo [word study] means to regard as nothing, to not recognize, to spurn, to despise, to do away with what has been laid down. In Classic Greek atheteo is used to describe setting aside of a treaty or promise. Blaspheme blasphemeo [word study] means literally to speak to harm and in general therefore means to bring into ill repute and so to slander.
Kuriotes, dominion, occurs in three other passages, Ep note ; Col note ; 2Pe note. In the first two, and probably in the third, the reference is to angelic dignities. Some explain this passage and the one in Peter, of evil angels.
Jude was a half brother of Jesus and the son of Mary and Joseph. He had something to say, and he regretted having to say it. If we were that close to Jesus I. Results 1 - 16 of 20 [PDF] Jude: An exposition of the letter of Jude (The 66 Books) by Barry Bowen. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can.
In Colossians the term is used with thrones, principalities, and powers, with reference to the orders of the celestial hierarchy as conceived by Gnostic teachers, and with a view to exalt Christ above all these. Glories or dignities is used in this concrete sense only here and at 2Pe note. The passages are Jude , 14, This reference to Michael was said by Origen to be founded on a Jewish work called "The Assumption of Moses," the first part of which was lately found in an old Latin translation at Milan; and this is the view of Davidson, so far at least as the words "the Lord rebuke thee" are concerned.
Others refer it to Zechariah ; but there is nothing there about Moses' body, or Michael, or a dispute about the body. Others, again, to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy , where Michael is said to have been made guardian of Moses' grave. Doubtless Jude was referring to some accepted story or tradition, probably based on Deuteronomy For a similar reference to tradition compare 2Ti note ; Acts This conception is developed in the books written during and after the exile, especially Daniel and Zechariah.
Michael Who is like God? He is adored as a saint in the Romish Church. For legends, see Mrs.
Jameson, "Sacred and Legendary Art," i. Archangel archaggelos [word study] refers to the first or highest angel, the leader of the angels. He constantly throws between seeking to divide whether it be between a husband and wife, a child and parent, a church, etc. Resist his divisive, condemnatory accusations firm in your faith. Michael remembered the high estate from which he fell, and left his sentence to God.
Rebuke epitimao [word study] means literally to put honor upon and then to mete out due measure and so then to find fault with, to censure severely, to rebuke, to express strong disapproval of, or to denounce cp the incredible example in Mt Compare phusika, natural phusikos [word study] , 2 Peter note. To shrivel, to wither, to spoil. It means to ruin or destroy something with the implication of causing something to be corrupt. The expression in 1 Corinthians is different. There the word is not used as an imprecation, but almost as a noun: "Woe is unto me.
A strong expression, indicating a reckless, abandoned devotion of the energies, like the Latin effundi. So Tacitus says of Maecenas, "he was given up to love for Bathyllus;" lit.